Home | About | Bible | Experiences | History | Letters | Links | Misc |Members
News | Physicians | Reform | Science | Watchtower | WT Victims Memorial

 
"I refused to allow myself, or my son, to recieve blood. The hospital was to petition the court in the morning to allow treatment against my wishes, but my son died before it could be accomplished..."
- Buck Parker was just one day old when he died

"Maybe, I will make it to 1975, and I won't have to die."
Color - George Crabtree did not make it to 1975

Welcome
to the
Watchtower Victims Memorial

The Watchtower Victims Memorial is dedicated to the memory of Jehovah's Witnesses and their minor children who died as a result of the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society's organizational decrees banning blood transfusions, organ transplants, skin grafts and vaccinations. To add a name to this memorial please contact us.

Note: The Watchtower Victimes Memorial was originated and hosted by another web site several years ago. We have obtained the files and are updating them as time permits.
Unknown Victims
THE NAMES listed in this Memorial constitute only a small sampling of the victims who should be included, according to published statistics. Relatively few cases come to the attention of the news media because a police accident report was involved or because doctors asked courts to intervene. When adult JWs are admitted privately to hospitals and sign legal release papers, their deaths due to refusing blood are generally recorded only in confidential patient files. Published obituaries usually omit such details. Names are listed here if reported in the public news media or if submitted by relatives, friends, or other knowledgeable individuals who vouch for the information. 
  1. Tully Ioannides

  2. Jehovah's Witness, age 18, died December 19, 1998, after refusing blood transfusions at the Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia -- the second Jehovah's Witness woman in two weeks to die in the same hospital after refusing a blood transfusion. SOURCE (public media): http://www.theaustralian.com.au 22dec98 article "Another Witness chooses maker over medicine" By ADRIAN McGREGOR MORE
  3. Australian age 26

  4. Jehovah's Witness woman, age 26, died December 1998, after refusing blood transfusions at the Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. SOURCE (public media): http://www.theaustralian.com.au 12/12/98 article "Jehovah Witness dies after refusing blood tranfusion" from AAP MORE
  5. Frank Blanchet

  6. Jehovah's Witness, age 49, bled to death May 20, 1998, from an abdominal gunshot wound after refusing blood transfusions at Cottage Hospital in Santa Barbara, California. SOURCE (public media): Santa Barbara "NEWS PRESS" 5/21/98 article "Wounded insurance agent dies" by DAWN HOBBS, as found Thursday May 21, 1998, at the newspaper's online edition website http://news.newspress.com/local/murder.htm MORE
  7. Chicago Sister

  8. Jehovah's Witness, bled to death from complications of pregnancy December 1997 after refusing a blood transfusion in Chicago. SOURCE (public media): Internet e-mail discussion group "The Virtual Gathering," from a message publicly posted December 18, 1997, by a JW relative of the deceased. MORE
  9. Another Chicago sister

  10. Bled to death from complications of pregnancy November 1997 after refusing a blood transfusion in Chicago. SOURCE (public media): Internet e-mail discussion group "The Virtual Gathering," from a message publicly posted December 18, 1997, by a JW who revealed this case when saying her relative's was "the second death within a month under the same circumstances". MORE
  11. Barbara Clay

  12. Jehovah's Witness, age 78, died September 6, 1997, of heart failure after refusing a blood transfusion at Natchez, Mississippi. SOURCE (private e-mail): Carol Callon Fuqu MORE
  13. African girl

  14. Unnamed young female Jehovah's Witness died early-mid-1997, after refusing a blood transfusion in a hospital in Zambia. SOURCE (public media): Times of Zambia, September 26, 1997 article MORE
  15. Gary L. Kreider

  16. Jehovah's Witness, in his late forties, hanged himself December 1996 in Downey, California. SOURCE (private e-mail): his ex-wife's friend Ravyn Spencer MORE
  17. Siman Rapley

  18. Jehovah's Witness, age 30, died October 2, 1996 at Cairns Base Hospital in Australia after blood transfusions were refused. SOURCE (public media): "October 03, 1996 From a newspaper in Rockhampton, Australia. Perhaps the North Queensland Times" MORE
  19. Dina Mainz

  20. Jehovah's Witness, age 24, died October 1996 at Hvidovre hospital, Denmark, after blood transfusions were refused. SOURCE (public media): editorial in Denmark's largest newspaper Ekstrabladet, Oct. 21, 1996; also, the norwegian weekly magazine "Allers", no. 50-1996.MORE
  21. Elena Godlevskaya

  22. Jehovah's Witness, age 17, died September 1996 at Riga, Latvia, after refusing blood. SOURCE (public media): Kievskie vedomosty, 25.09.1998 MORE
  23. Emelie Grootjes

  24. Jehovah's Witness, age 19, died 1996 at Poole General Hospital in England. Her Jehovah's Witness parents refused blood transfusions for her. SOURCE (public media): The Daily Mirror, September 24, 1996, page 15 MORE
  25. unnamed woman

  26. Jehovah's Witness, age 83, died October 1995 in Norway after blood transfusions were refused. SOURCE (public media): the Norwegian newspaper Dagbladet Oct 26, 1995, and the Norwegian newspaper, Varden, Oct. 27, 1995 MORE
  27. Cathy Grenci

  28. Jehovah's Witness, age 34, died June 12, 1995 at York Central Hospital, Ontario, Canada after blood transfusions were refused. SOURCE (public media): The Toronto Star, Sunday May 26, 1996 MORE
  29. Tony Mendez

  30. Jehovah's Witness, died June 6, 1995 at Arroyo Grande Community Hopsital after refusing blood transfusions. SOURCE (privately reported): August 11, 1997 e-mail from his niece Caribe A. Caro MORE
  31. Tammy Schultz

  32. Jehovah's Witness, age 26, died in Oregon May 24, 1995, of heart failure due to repeated trauma. SOURCE (private e-mail): her best friend Ravyn Spencer MORE
  33. Joshua Walker

  34. Jehovah's Witness, age 16, died October 4, 1994 in Quispamsis, New Brunswick, Canada. He agreed with his parents in refusing blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): The Daily News of Halifax/Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada, October 6, 1994, page 13 MORE
  35. Judith Riberas

  36. Child, age 14, died 1994 at Zaragoza, Spain after blood transfusions were refused. SOURCE (public media): El Mundo, September 17, 1994 MORE
  37. Marcos Vallés

  38. Child, age 13, died 1994 at Zaragoza, Spain after blood transfusions were refused. SOURCE (public media): El Mundo, September 17, 1994 MORE
  39. Walter Swisher

  40. Jehovah's Witness, age 37, died May 6, 1994 at home at Kokomo, Indiana. SOURCE (privately reported): form completed by his brother. MORE
  41. Adrian Yeatts

  42. Child, age 15, died September 13, 1993 at the Dr. Charles A. Janeway Child Health Centre in St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. He agreed with his Jehovah's Witness parents in refusing blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): AWAKE! magazine, May 22, 1994, page 8 MORE including photo
  43. Lenae Martinez

  44. Child, age 12, died September 22, 1993 at Valley Children's Hospital in Fresno, California. She agreed with her Jehovah's Witness parents in refusing blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): Awake! magazine, May 22, 1994, page 10. MORE including photo
  45. Lisa Kosack

  46. Child, age 12, died [date not supplied] at Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. She agreed with her Jehovah's Witness parents in refusing blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): Awake! magazine, May 22, 1994, page 14. MORE including photo
  47. Dan Andersen

  48. Child, age 15, died summer 1993 in Denmark after blood transfusions were refused. SOURCE (public media): The Watchtower February, 1, 1996, page 15 and the largest newspaper in Denmark, Ekstra Bladet January 25, 1996 MORE
  49. Susan Teeney

  50. Jehovah's Witness, age 27, died 1993 in Britain. She refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): TV Quick magazine, July 31 through August 6, 1993. MORE
  51. Nelida Gonzalez

  52. Jehovah's Witness, age 55, died refusing blood November 1992 in Ponce, Puerto Rico. SOURCE (private e-mail): her neice Fran Jolly. MORE
  53. John Alson

  54. Jehovah's Witness, age 47, died August 1992 at San Joaquin General Hospital in Stockton, California. He refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): The Modesto Bee undated and August 16, 1992. MORE
  55. unnamed woman

  56. Jehovah's Witness apparently died in 1992 in California. Document signed in advance prevented blood transfusions while she was unconscious. SOURCE (public media): Awake! magazine, September 22, 1992, page 12 MORE
  57. Minel Koehler

  58. Jehovah's Witness, age 19, died April 1992 at St. Luke's Medical Center in St. Paul, Minnesota. She refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): Pioneer Press, April 29, 1992, page 2C MORE
  59. Gary Ricketts

  60. Jehovah's Witness, age 23, died March 23, 1992, in England. He refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): London¹s TV Quick, November 7-13, 1992. MORE
  61. Brian Hunt

  62. Jehovah's Witness, age 49, died 1992 in England. He refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): Western Morning News, August 28, 1992 MORE
  63. Doreen Nielson

  64. Jehovah's Witness, age 49, died September 19, 1991 in Cleveland, Ohio. She refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): Cleveland Plain Dealer, May 9, 1992 MORE
  65. Kevin Rattenbury

  66. Child, age 14, died August 1991 in Michigan. He agreed with his Jehovah's Witness parents in refusing blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): Cleveland Plain Dealer and the Chicago Tribune, August 14, 1991 MORE
  67. Wyndham Cook

  68. Child, age 15, died summer 1991 in South Africa. He agreed with his Jehovah's Witness parents in refusing blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): Awake! magazine, August 22, 1991, page 15 MORE
  69. Thomas Poole

  70. Jehovah's Witness, age 37, died March 1991 in Florida. Refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): Miami Herald, March 7, 1991; Sun-Sentinel, July 9, 1992 MORE
  71. Cedric Thames

  72. Jehovah's Witness, age 23, died in 1991 in Orlando, Florida. Relatives refused blood transfusions for him. SOURCE (public media): Associated Press dispatch, August 13, 1992; the Orlando Sentinel, August 14, 1992 MORE
  73. Catalina Galián

  74. Jehovah's Witness, age 27, died 1991 at Cartagena, Spain after blood transfusions were refused. SOURCE (public media): Cambio 16, October 3, 1994 and Alternativa 2.000, No. 10, 1991 MORE
  75. Joanne Mangione

  76. Jehovah's Witness, age 30, died at 3:30 p.m. on December 6, 1990, at Sister's Hospital, Buffalo, New York. Refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): Buffalo News Sunrise Edition, December 7, 1990, page 1 MORE
  77. Estella Conroy

  78. Jehovah's Witness, age 50-something, died September 3, 1990 refusing a blood transfusion in Jefferson City, Missouri. SOURCE (private e-mail): her oldest son Mike Conroy MORE
  79. Elihu Canle

  80. Child, age 2, died February 7, 1990 at Santiago de Compostella, Spain after blood transfusions were refused. SOURCE (public media): Cambio 16, October 3, 1994 and Alternativa 2.000, March - April 1990 MORE
  81. Kelsey Crockford

  82. Child, age 2, died 1990 in Houston, Texas. His Jehovah's Witness parents refused blood transfusions for him. SOURCE (public media): The Houston Chronicle, November 18, 1995, page 42A MORE
  83. Lysa Biffle

  84. Jehovah's Witness, died December 1989 at Queens General Hospital, New York. Refused blood or blood products. SOURCE (public media): The New York Post, December 27, 1989 MORE
  85. Alexander Bazowsky

  86. Child, age 5, died July, 1989, resident of Minto, New Brunswick, youngest of 3 children. Son of Carol and Brian Bazowsky, Grandson of Al and Dorothy Bazowsky SOURCE: private e-mail from Brian Callaghan MORE
  87. unnamed woman

  88. Jehovah's Witness, age 20, died June 1989. She refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): Journal of the American Medical Association, September 1990, cited in an Associated Press dispatch in the Rockford, Illinois, Register Star, September 6, 1990 MORE
  89. Jared Brown

  90. Child, age 10 (?), died, 1989. Resident of Ottawa, Ontario, youngest of 3 children. Son of Gardner and Linda Brown SOURCE: private e-mail from Brian Callaghan MORE
  91. Lora Jaudon

  92. Jehovah's Witness, age 29, died April 1989 at Pescack Valley Hospital in New Jersey. She refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): The Record [undated clipping], pages A-1 and A-12. MORE
  93. John Truong

  94. Jehovah's Witness, age 24, died 1989. Refused blood transfusions for four days SOURCE (public media): Cox News Service, July 8, 1989 MORE
  95. Lucia Gangi

  96. Child, age 12, died February 1989 in Melbourne, Australia. Her Jehovah's Witness parents refused blood transfusions for her. SOURCE (public media): Australia¹s Telegraph Mirror Journal, March 25, 1992. MORE
  97. Christopher Burke

  98. Jehovah's Witness, age 47, died January 1989 in Britain. Documents signed in advance prevented blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): The Sun, January 19, 1989 MORE
  99. Juan Ortega

  100. Jehovah's Witness, age 38, died August 1988. He refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): the Miami Herald, August 31, 1988, page 6A MORE
  101. Ms. Peyton

  102. Jehovah's Witness, died under the care of Dr. Elisabeth Rosenthal. Refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): Discover magazine, August 1988 MORE
  103. Elizabeth Sample

  104. Jehovah's Witness, age 57, died May 1988 in Detroit, Michigan, after refusing blood. SOURCE (private e-mail): her son Raymond A. Johnson MORE
  105. Audrey Lawson

  106. Jehovah's Witness, age 31, died December 1987 at Burnaby Hospital in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. She refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): The Vancouver Province, December 9, 1987; the Edmonton Journal [undated]; The Vancouver Sun, December 18, 1992 inquest report MORE
  107. Bridget Warner

  108. Jehovah's Witness, age 21, died, April 1986, at Tallahassee Memorial Regional Medical Center in Florida. She refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): The Morning Call, April 28, 1986. MORE
  109. Buck Parker

  110. Child, one day old, died February 11, 1986 in Albany, New York, after mother refused to allow transfusion and before hospital was able to obtain a court order. SOURCE (private e-mail): his mother JoAnne Parker MORE
  111. Donald MacDonald

  112. Jehovah's Witness, age 27, died of leukemia after refusing blood February 2, 1986 in Largo, Florida. SOURCE (private e-mail): his sister Karenne Gionet Zentek MORE
  113. Judy Granvold

  114. Jehovah's Witness, age 38, bled to death May 1985 in San Luis Obispo, California, after refusing blood transfusion. SOURCE (private e-mail): her husband's cousin Marlene Mercado MORE
  115. Mrs. M. L. Sierra

  116. Jehovah's Witness, died December 1984 at Melilla, Spain after another JW disconnected her transfusion catheter. SOURCE (public media): Alternativa 2.000, No. 3 July-August 1990 MORE
  117. Kelly Brooks

  118. Jehovah's Witness, died in the summer of 1984 in Owosso, Michigan after blood transfusions were refused. SOURCE (privately reported): Cousin's husband Ty Scharrer. MORE
  119. Michelle Hartley'

  120. Jehovah's Witness, age 23, died 1983 at Brandon, Florida. Refused blood after a car accident. SOURCE (private e-mail): her best friend Lydia Paterson MORE
  121. unnamed man

  122. Jehovah's Witness, died 1983 at Gerona, Spain. He refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): El Periodico, September 17, 1993 MORE
  123. Renata

  124. Child, age 14, died apparently in 1982, in Brazil. She refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): The Watchtower, August 1, 1982, page 22 MORE
  125. Carol Sulkye

  126. Jehovah's Witness, age 26, died December 14, 1981 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. She refused a blood transfusion. SOURCE (public media): The Toronto Star, January 20, 1982. MORE
  127. Kim Straton

  128. Jehovah's Witness, age 33, died July 1981 in Kentucky. He refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): The Courier-Journal, July 19, 1981. MORE
  129. Charles Williams

  130. Jehovah's Witness, age 33, died July 12, 1981 in Detroit. He refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): The Boston Globe, August 9, 1981 MORE
  131. Mark Ramsey

  132. Jehovah's Witness, age 27, died February 1981 in Miami, Florida. He refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): Miami Herald, February 21, 1985 MORE
  133. Anita Brown

  134. Jehovah's Witness, died June 17, 1980 in California. Refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): Contra Costa Times, June 25, 1980 MORE
  135. Sarah Cyrennes

  136. Child, age 12, died March 30, 1980 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Jehovah's Witness parents prevented blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): The Toronto Globe and Mail, undated clipping. MORE
  137. Eleanor L. Maurer

  138. Jehovah's Witness, age 31, died September 1979 in Massachusetts. She refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): The Boston Herald, September 19, 1979 MORE
  139. Arvid Moody

  140. Jehovah's Witness, age 68, died June 1978 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, after refusing a kidney transplant. SOURCE (privately reported): his daughter Debbie (Moody) Shard. MORE
  141. Mary Williams

  142. Jehovah's Witness, age 41, died November 1971 after refusing a blood transfusion at Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hospital SOURCE (private e-mail): her daughter Sandra Clemens. MORE
  143. unnamed girl

  144. Child, age 13, died apparently in 1971, in Berlin, Germany. Her Jehovah's Witness mother refused blood transfusions for her. SOURCE (public media): The Watchtower, September 1, 1971, page 531 MORE
  145. Irene Walter

  146. Child, age 2, died November 5, 1970 in Steyr, Upper Austria. Her Jehovah's Witness parents refused blood for her. SOURCE (public media): Awake!, September 22, 1972, pages 17-21 MORE
  147. unnamed woman

  148. Jehovah's Witness, died apparently in 1970 in the Ellice Islands. She refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): 1971 Yearbook of Jehovah¹s Witnesses, page 131 MORE
  149. Robert Pelzek

  150. Jehovah's Witness, age 22, died in August 1968 at St. Luke's Hospital, Racine, Wisconsin. He refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): UPI report in the Dallas Morning News cited in the book I Was Raised a Jehovah's Witnessby Joe Hewitt, 1997 edition, page 127 MORE
  151. Mrs. J. Christian

  152. Jehovah's Witness, died March 1968 at Good Samaritan Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona. She refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): The Arizona Republic, March 9, 1968 MORE
  153. George Crabtree

  154. Jehovah's Witness, died 1966 in Holly, Michigan. Did not have needed surgery due to blood doctrine. SOURCE: Nephew Ty Scharrer. MORE
  155. John Perricone

  156. Child, age 3, died March 4, 1961 at Pollack Hospital, Jersey City, New Jersey. Jehovah's Witness parents refused blood for the child. SOURCE (public media): The New York Times, March 5, 1961 MORE
  157. Bill Korinek

  158. Jehovah's Witness, died July 31, 1957, in Utah. He refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): the book We Left Jehovah's Witnesses - a Non-Prophet Organization by Edmond C. Gruss MORE
  159. Brendon Hood

  160. Child, age 4, died late January or early February [year not supplied] at Canoga Park, California. Jehovah's Witness parents refused blood for him. SOURCE (public media): Associated Press dispatch reproduced on page 70 of the book Danger at Your Door by Duane Magnani. MORE
  161. Betty Jackson

  162. Jehovah's Witness, age 24, died November 13 [year not supplied] at Hempstead General Hospital, Hempstead, New York. Her Jehovah's Witness husband refused blood for her. SOURCE (public media): Associated Press dispatch reproduced on page 70 of the book Danger at Your Door by Duane Magnani. MORE
  163. Leonard Budd

  164. Jehovah's Witness, age 21, died [date not supplied] under the care of Dr. Morris Friedman at Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. He refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): UPC dispatch reproduced on page 30 of Questions for Jehovah's Witnesses by William and Joan Cetnar MORE
  165. Dan Morgan

  166. Jehovah's Witness, died October 1951. He refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): 1975 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, page 224 MORE
  167. Samuel Muscariello

  168. Jehovah's Witness, died in 1949. Refused blood transfusions. SOURCE (public media): 1975 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, page 223 MORE

THE NAMES listed in this Memorial constitute only a small sampling of the victims who should be included, according to published statistics. Relatively few cases come to the attention of the news media because a police accident report was involved or because doctors asked courts to intervene. When adult JWs are admitted privately to hospitals and sign legal release papers, their deaths due to refusing blood are generally recorded only in confidential patient files. Published obituaries usually omit such details. Names are listed here if reported in the public news media or if submitted by relatives, friends, or other knowledgeable individuals who vouch for the information.